While eating disorders are often portrayed as illnesses that only affect females, large population studies suggest that up to a quarter of people suffering with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa are male, and almost an equal number of males and females suffer with binge eating disorder. We also know that under-diagnosis and cultural stigma mean that the actual proportion of males with eating disorders could be much higher.
Eating disorders can develop at any age but males and females are most at risk for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in their late teens/early twenties, while binge eating disorder is more prevalent in a person in their mid-twenties.
Rates of body dissatisfaction in males are rapidly approaching that of females. For males, body dissatisfaction is more commonly manifested as the pursuit of a muscular, lean physique rather than a lower body weight.
Male athletes have an increased vulnerability to eating disorders, particularly those in sports with a greater emphasis on weight classes and aesthetic ideals such as weight lifters, wrestlers, gymnasts, dancers, jockeys and body builders. For some males, heightened concerns about muscularity may become part of an eating disorder, characterised by distorted perceptions about muscle bulk, and /or distorted eating and exercise patterns.
The factors that contribute to the onset of an eating disorder are complex. No single cause of eating disorders has been identified; however, known contributing risk factors include:
- Genetic vulnerability
- Psychological factors
- Socio-cultural influences
What are the risks for males?
Most of the common known risk factors for eating disorders apply to males and females (e.g. perfectionism, bullying, dieting, trauma, childhood obesity). Males are also are exposed to unique cultural messages that can increase their vulnerability towards developing an eating disorder. These include:
- Males should only have one body type - the ideal body shape for men is protrayed in media platforms as a lean and muscular physique
- Males need to be in control – an expectation is often placed on males to ‘take charge’ and be ‘in control’. When coping with particular issues beyond their control, males can sometimes displace these anxieties onto their bodies, manifesting in control over the body through excessive exercise and dieting
- Eating disorders and other mental illnesses are not masculine – a desire not to appear weak or vulnerable has led to a stigma around mental illness that has delayed treatment and support for many males with eating disorders. This stigma has been further exacerbated by the popular misconception that eating disorders are a ‘female’s disease’.
These negative cultural messages do not reflect the realities of mental and physical health in males.
Snapshot: Guys Get Eating Disorders Too