Binge eating disorder

Binge eating disorder (BED) is defined by regular episodes of binge eating accompanied by feelings of loss of control, and in many cases, guilt, embarrassment and disgust.

Unlike those with bulimia nervosa, a person with binge eating disorder will not use compensatory behaviours, such as self-induced vomiting or over-exercising after binge eating. Many people with binge eating disorder are living in larger bodies, and population studies indicate that similar numbers of males and females experience binge eating disorder.

Binge eating disorder is characterised by:

  • Frequent episodes of binge eating involving the consumption of a large amount of food in a short period of time. Binge episodes will be accompanied by a loss of control over eating and the inability to stop the binge

  • A range of identifiable eating habits, including eating very quickly, eating without being hungry and continuing to eat to discomfort when already full

  • Feelings of guilt and shame about the amount of food consumed during a binge episode and the way it has been eaten. Binge eating often occurs at times of stress, anger, boredom or distress, and at these times may be a means of coping with challenging emotions

  • Secretive behaviours around food. Because of their feelings around food, people with binge eating disorder are often very secretive about their eating habits and choose to eat alone

What are the warning signs of binge eating disorder?

Someone with binge eating disorder may display a combination of the following symptoms:

Physical signs

  • Feeling tired and not sleeping well

  • Feeling bloated, constipated or developing intolerances to food

Psychological signs

  • Preoccupation with eating, food, body shape and weight

  • Increased sensitivity to comments relating to food, weight, body shape, exercise

  • Extreme body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and shame about their appearance

  • Feelings of extreme distress, sadness, irritability, anxiety and guilt during and after a binge episode

Behavioural signs

  • Evidence of binge eating (e.g. disappearance or hoarding of food)

  • Secretive behaviour relating to food (e.g. hiding food and food wrappers; evading questions about eating and weight)

  • Increased isolation and withdrawal from activities previously enjoyed

  • Erratic behaviour (e.g. shoplifting food or spending large amounts of money on food)

  • Self-harm, substance abuse or suicide attempts

What are the risks associated with binge eating disorder?

The risks associated with binge eating disorder are severe. People with binge eating disorder may experience:

  • Osteoarthritis - a painful form of degenerative arthritis in which a person’s joints degrade in quality and can lead to loss of cartilage

  • Chronic kidney problems or kidney failure

  • High blood pressure and/or high cholesterol leading to increased risk of stroke, diabetes and heart disease

Treatment

Evidence-based therapies to consider for the treatment of binge eating disorder include:

  • Cognitive behavioural therapy for binge eating disorder

  • Interpersonal psychotherapy

  • Dialectical behaviour therapy

  • Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a central nervous system stimulant medication

Find out more about specific treatment approaches.

Getting help

If you suspect that you or someone you know has binge eating disorder, it is important to seek help immediately. Contact your GP for a referral to a practitioner with specialised knowledge in health, nutrition and eating disorders. 

Find help in your local area.

 

See also

Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is defined by the persistent restriction of energy intake, intense fear of gaining weight and disturbance in self-perceived weight or shape.

more

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is defined by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviours. People with bulimia nervosa often place an excessive emphasis on body shape or weight in their self-evaluation. This can lead to the person’s sense of self-esteem and self-worth being defined by the way they look.

more

Other specified feeding or eating disorders

Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) was formerly recognised as Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).

more

Other presentations

Feeding and eating disorders are characterised by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behaviour that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning.

more

Comorbidity

Comorbidity is generally defined as the co-occurrence of two or more physical or mental health problems.

more

Help us improve!

Give us feedback!

We will continue throughout 2020 to update and improve the NEDC website and welcome any feedback you may have on the site.

Provide feedback